## The Rules of Chess

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Chess is a game, played by two players. One player plays with the white pieces, and the other player plays with the black pieces. Each player has sixteen pieces in the beginning of the game: one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights, and eight pawns. Chess is played on a chessboard, consisting of 64 squares: eight rows and eight columns.
One player, referred to as White, controls the white pieces and the other player, Black, controls the black pieces; White is always the first player to move. The colors are chosen either by a friendly agreement, by a game of chance or by a tournament director. The players of the chess alternate moving one piece at a time. Pieces are moved to either an unoccupied square, or one occupied by an opponent's piece, capturing it and removing it from play.
About the movement of the pieces, when a king is under direct attack by one of the opponent's pieces, the player is said to be in check. When in check, only moves that remove the king from attack are permitted. The player must not make any move that would place his king in check. The object of the game is to checkmate the opponent; this occurs when the opponent's king is in check, and there are no moves that remove the king from attack. The rook moves any number of vacant squares vertically or horizontally. The bishop moves any number of vacant squares in any direction diagonally. Note that a bishop never changes square color; therefore players speak about ""light-squared"" or ""dark-squared"" bishops. The queen can move any number of vacant squares diagonally, horizontally, or vertically. The knight can jump over occupied squares and moves two spaces horizontally and one space vertically or vice versa, making an ""L"" shape. A knight in the middle of the board has eight squares to which it can move. Note that every time a knight moves, it changes square color. In chess, pawns have the most complex rules of movement: A pawn can move forward one square, if that square is unoccupied. If it has not moved yet, the pawn has the option of moving two squares forward, if both squares in front of the pawn are unoccupied.
With the exception of the knight, pieces cannot jump over each other. One's own pieces cannot be passed if they are in the line of movement, and a friendly piece can never replace another friendly piece. Enemy pieces cannot be passed, but they can be ""captured"". When a piece is captured, the attacking piece replaces the enemy piece on its square. Chess games do not have to end in checkmate ? either player may resign if the situation looks hopeless. Games also may end in a draw (tie).
Chess games can be played with a time-limit by setting a move time when creating a new game. In timed games each player has a certain amount of time available for deciding which moves to make, and the time remaining for each player decreases only when it is their turn to move.
An endgame scenario in which all pawns have been captured, and one side has only its king remaining while the other is down to just a king or a king plus one knight or one bishop. The position is a draw because it is impossible for the dominant side to deliver checkmate regardless of play.
These are some of the rules a player must obey when playing chess. Chess is a silent war yet it still have a rules one should obey in order to have a good flow of game.